Most of the work below is the result of using my lathe and my small 3-axis NC (Numerically controlled) routing machine. The NC code was solely developed with our own software tools. I use the IRIT solid modeling environment to create the G-code (the NC tool path) and NCSim to simulate and verify the code before I actually cut. You can also watch a You Tube movie showing the CNC process of many of the models below.
A wall clock, from Mahogany (left) and Oak (right).
A clock made from wooden wheels (using CNC). The clock is operated via wheel number 1 (small wheel on the bottom right) via a step motor controlled by the Arduino controller. The code to operate the controller is available here while the CNC code to cut the wheels (from ~6 mm thick birch plywood, in mm, using 1.5mm diameter tool) is available here.
The spirals are mostly turning (of a cylinder) on a lathe. If you need hints how the spirals were made on the lathe, consult the two pictures on the right. This table is made from a Beech wood.
This floating table was inspired by a similar table model created in https://youtu.be/80uQSWkdevQ.
Three interlocking Borromean Rings. Three different wood types (Oak, Mahogany, and Eucalyptus). Can you envision how this object was made? The image on the right gives a hint ("when you have eliminated all which is impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth", Sherlock Holmes).
Penrose triangle is a very well-known so called 'impossible' shape. Try google it. This specific variation of the Penrose triangle is part of my "Escher for Real" and ""Beyond Escher for Real" work. The right image shows the NC simulation on NCSim. Beech wood.
Here is a variation of the David star using two intertwined Penrose triangles. The CNC in action is shown on the right. See also ""Beyond Escher for Real". Gaboon wood.
NC machining of the head of the David's statue. A relief. See NCSim for the NC simulation image.
Thin wall's lamp shades. Left is made of olive wood, right from Cypress.
Dithered lamp shade. Dithered images of the David Star, the Menora, and Herzl were carved on the side of the thin shade walls, via CNC. See also Dithering by Curves Made from Cypress wood. The leg (on the right) is a combination of wood with Epoxy.
An epoxy stripes Champange lamp. The left image shows the top part ready for pouring the epoxy with the passages prepared for the epoxy to traverse from one level to the next. Similar passages were made on the back side for the trapped air to exit. The entire outer shape was then sealed and epoxy poured in. Cypress tree.
An epoxy stripes red wine glass lamp. The left image shows the cutting of the longitudes using a router (6mm bit), after the latitudes were carved on the lathe. Depth of cut was ~20mm before sealing and pouring the epoxy in (Final wall thickness is around 7 mm). The two rightmost images show the final lamp turned off and on, respectively. Unknown tree (Melia azedarach!?).
A lamp with eccentric circles. The vertical diamond shape was turned eccentrically on chucks with square jaws (see two images on the right). It was turned twice, once from each side, with different eccentricity. The eccentricity has been achieved using the two wooden bars placed next to the jaws, on two neighboring jaws (see rightmost image). After each side was turned, it was filled and sealed back with transparent epoxy, achieving the final effect. Mahogany wood. Original idea thanks to Jim Duxbury, American Woodturner, October 2018. Yet another interesting question is where the electric wire is...
A vessel with through criss-crosses. The walls are almost 10mm in depth and the longitude and latitude arcs go in about half that much. The inside latitudes were carved first on the lathe with a parting tool while the outside longitude arcs were curved second using the routing device shown on the left image. Both arcs are about 5mm in width. Indian Rosewood, over 20cm in diameter.
As one of the most famous models in computer graphics and geometric
modeling, here is a wooden version of the Utah Teapot. Yet another
combination of (mostly) CNC (top left), making two half-teapots, and
turning on a lathe (top right) the inside. Beech wood.
Victor Vasarely (1906-1997), the `father' of OpArt, produced several
pictures in which nearly parallel black stripes on a white background
bend and deform locally to produce striking Gestalt 3D effects.
Inspired by Vasarely's art, in this work we produce a 3D wood version
of two such emblems combined together in 3D, Israel's Menorah and the
David star, that are coming to life independently, from two different
viewing angles. Made off sequoia tree, and combined wood turning and
CNC work (left image). Thanks go to Uriel Bareven that helped
slicing this stock, from Sequoia.
Dithering is a process of creating gradual color changes by
using a (small) finite set of colors. Herein, we recreate a
gray level image of Herzl using random black filled curves over
light (birch plywood wood) background. Each pixel in the original
image on the left (but low resolution sampled to 30 by 30) is
mapped to a black freeform random curve, cut as a hole in a light
wood (next to left image).
The two right images show a zoom-in on a small portion of the
Curves were randomly crafted to cover varying percentages of
the unit (pixel) square and the proper covering curve was selected
based on the gray level of every pixel. These 900 holes where
then cut with the aid of CNC.
See also Dithered lamp shade
Given the pattern shown on the top left, these concentric wiggly
rings were cut using CNC, from a few millimeters thick wooden plate.
Then, every second ring was rotated half a cycle of the pattern
and all rings were glued together.
Two such vessels are presented here, from Oak (top) and Mahogany
The stock from which the earrings were (2mm thick) sliced is shown below. A combination of Ebony, Padauk, and Beech wood. The Ebony was rounded on a lathe.
A wine glass with a knotted neck. The image on the right shows the NC step. Olive tree.
Yet another combination of (very delicate) NC machining and turning.
This time the neck in the shape of a more complex knot (so much so that I decided not to disconnect two joins if you can see them). The left is from olive tree and the right in Indian Rosewood. The NC process is also depicted below. This knot is also known as (8n3) torus knot.
A gentleman wine glass with a Bow Tie. The rightmost image shows another variant. Olive tree. The images below shows the steps (left to right): the turning, preparation for CNC, and the CNC itself.
A neck formed out of a cross of two (same) letters... Olive tree.
A statue made to look like the Israeli emblem, the Menorah from
one view (left bottom image) and the star of David from
another direction (middle bottom image), from another... Top
two images show the two setups of the CNC stages. Olive tree.
An attempt to manually carve a facial statue. Carved out of an olive tree.
An attempt to manually carve a statue of a man and a woman. Carved out of an olive tree.
One can turn one captured ring on a wine glass. One can turn two captured rings on a wine glass. But can one turn two wine glasses captured in a single ring? It is doable but the version you see here is only a partial proof - the ring here broke in the process and was glued back in... The three images below give you some hints how it can be done (wood turning only and no CNC).
Anti-twins wine glasses. Olive tree.
NC machining was used to cut the David Star shape at the neck. The rest is regular wood turning. The image on the right shows the NC setup. The David Star is actually formed out of two intertwined Penrose triangles. See also "Beyond Escher for Real". Indian Rosewood.
Here is another variation of this model, this time from an Olive tree.
Here is another variation of the David Star. Herein, the Jewish David Star is shaped to look like the Islamic Crescent Moon symbol from the side. As a result, this model presents the Jewish David Star from one view and the Islamic Crescent Moon from another. The image on the right shows the CNC stage. Indian Rosewood tree.
An example of a spherical bowl with a heart outline on the top. On the left is a snapshot of the CNC in action. Indian Rosewood tree.
Examples of small wooden buckets with wooden chains, built from one wood block (Indian rosewood). The image on the right depicts the CNC step. Indian Rosewood tree.
A combination of NC machining and turning. The image second from the right shows the NC setup while the right image shows the final NC part before turning. Beech wood.
Another variation of (twisted) candle sticks. Each created by
cutting a rectangular block on the band saw and removing most of the
excessive materials as shown in the front and side view in this
attached pdf file .
The final cleanup was done by manual carving. Chinaberry
(Melia azedarach) wood.
A vase being held by two hands. A combination of NC machining and
turning. The image on the left shows the NC step. The
geometry was creating by deforming a 3D model of a hand using a
geometric modeling technique called freeform deformation, that uses
trivariate splines. Olive tree.
Wicker style tops for wood (olive tree) vessels. The left image shows the CNC stage.
Two cones turned on a lathe, sliced and glued together... Indian Rosewood tree.
This segmented turning piece (a combination of Mahogany and Oak) is created one layer after another, using a Jig that divides the entire circle to 24 parts. The Jig is made of simple 24 170mm radius lines (12 340mm diameter lines) equally spaced around the circle. You can find the CNC G-code for this one here (the cuts are done in 4 mm deep zigzag motion in Z to a total depth of 8 mm). Note the dividers in the Jig can be taken out to create a division of the circle to 12 (as is the case for the first layer in the final piece), 6, 4, or 3 parts.
This segmented turning piece (a combination of Mahogany, Beech and Oak) is created by glowing stripes of the different wood type, as can be seen on the left image, only to diagonally cut circular rings out of the plate using a scroll saw and glow them stacked together (twisted) into a conical shape. The images on the right show two different final results.
Turning the plate on the right is the easy part once you have the board on the left. However, can you envision how the board on the left was made? The original credit should go to this movie
High tea service using three wild chess board plates as above. Interestingly the wavy holder was made using many strips of veneer glued together using the jig shown on the right.
A segmented black hole vase turned from a square pattern formed out of two types of wood (Mahogany and Oak). The black base is Zebrano.
A bowl turned from hexagonal patterning formed out of three types of wood (Beech, Mahogany, and Oak). The left images show the glued pieces (note the interior pieces are not as high as the outer ones). The original credit should go to this movie
Two plates with random cuts of pieces from Beech and Mahogany wood. Can you imagine how this what done? A hint: There is an anti-symmetry relation between the two presented plates.
A plate with puzzle-like tiles. All tiles are identical, up to rigid motion (rotation and translation). Tiles are made of Oak and Mahogany wood, cut using CNC (See left image), and alternatingly placed.
And yet another. Here all tiles are different. After the CNC step (left) and while the tiles had excellent fit (middle), epoxy, darkened with black hue, was used to seal the bonding (right). Employing: Mahogany, Oak, Walnut and Enigma.
A bowl with Escher-style pattern at the bottom. The lizards were cut (using CNC) from a 3mm Populus plywood only to be water-painted, for the brown and red colors. Then, the pieces were re-glued together.
A box with a cover, both with threadings. Left shows the two parts while the right shows the box closed. Indian Rosewood tree.
A bowl with handled. Image on the bottom right shows the (fairly) balanced piece on the lather. Olive tree.
A bowl with an asymmetric neck. For those who wonder how this
is done, a hint: it was created from two different pieces. Indian
Banana shaped holes. Image below shows the CNC in action.
Indian Rosewood tree.
Indian Rosewood tree.
Small vessels with black inlays, made using 2mm CNC cutter. Top left shows the CNC process. Can you guess how the CNC was centered? Top right shows the final piece and left shows a similar style piece.
Some vases with (real) zippers (and real flowers).
Shoe knots, with real shoelaces...
Schizo Vases (google "Schizo Vase"!). The image on the right shows
the way the slots were made using a special Jig to guide the cutting
A Torus vase. The two images on the right show the stages of making this vase.
These virtual plants in epoxy are made after a great demo made
as part of the 2021 AAW symposium by Rebecca DeGroot. The
left example has some blue dye in the epoxy and bobbles, as
this sample was not placed in a pressure chamber.
Interestingly, the lensing effect of the epoxy, magnifies the
root, that as a result, looks a bit thicker than expected...
A second variant of virtual plants in epoxy, in a sphere this time. The left show the epoxy casting where the middle turned vessel (from Indian Rosewood) was vertically sliced as can be seen, to form the (four) bases for the spheres. The right shows the fixture used to cut the circular hole in the base to hold the sphere. Below are pictures of two final examples, with one/two virtual plants.
This vessel was made from ~25mm boards of Oak, Mahogany,
Walnut, and Zebrano. The individual wiggly pieces were cut
using CNC (top left). They were not glued directly but with
~6mm spacings for the epoxy (top right). After this first
stage epoxy, the single disk was sliced diagonally into
several rings to form four layers (middle left), and sealed
again (middle right) for a second stage of epoxy. The original
idea for the CNC wiggly pieces came from ThePapa1947. Thank you!
Edward Robinson and here is an adaptation to "floating rings", with translucent epoxy in between. The image on the right portrays how the epoxy was sealed in the different levels - using thin veneer walls...
A spiral pattern was carved, using CNC, ~25 mm deep, as can be seen in the left image. Then, the scheme to make a vase out of a flat board, as in previous woodpiece (See also Edward Robinson) was employed, carefully aligning the spirals.
A checkerboard patterns ~20 mm deep (or more) was made using
the lathe (the round latitude rings - see top left image) and
on a table saw (the longitude lines along the vessel). Then,
the vessel was sealed and filled with Epoxy (top middle and
right images), only to turn it to the final results on the
left. Chinaberry (Melia azedarach) wood. Clearly not bubbles
free... See also Epoxy Glasses .
Two more variances of the checkerboard pattern. Here again the latitude rings were made on the lathe but the longitude lines were carved using the presented router on a flat bed, using a 6mm cutter. This epoxy example was employing a pressure chamber while the epoxy is cured and lo and behold, almost bubbles free.
An attempt to use epoxy in vessels. Wood pieces are olive tree.
Yet another attempt to use epoxy in vessels. Top and bottom are made of Indian Rosewood tree. The rounded rings in the middle are mode of unknown wood. Left shows the gluing stage of the rings over a scrap wood mold, and after the pouring the epoxy and rough cleaning in the middle. That piece was then turned, and the scrap wood completely removed from the inside.
Another version of a vessel from a plate. The left shows the original stock, made from wedges of alternating wood types (Indian rose wood and Enigma), with the first stage of the vertical (cured) epoxy spacers. In fact, this stock generates three vessels, out of which one is shown in the image on the right, ready for the second stage epoxy. Below are images of the final results.
Thin slots in the shape of David star were made, almost through the depth of the stock (to ensure constant width), only to fill the slots with transparent epoxy. The slots were made using CNC on the left image and final result in the middle. In the right plate, the slots were made on a table saw.
Another two stages' epoxy deposition (from below and from the
above). The left two images show the result after the CNC and
after casting the epoxy from above. The right image shows the
result after the CNC from below. The CNC cuts were made to
half the thickness of the plate.
A ~12 cm sphere approximating the earth. Left shows the
carving (~8 mm deep into a turned sphere, in all oceans) and epoxy
stages, while the right shows two images of the final result.
I had some cracked olive tree pieces so I tried to use epoxy
as a filler. As a second stage a mold was made for the epoxy
ring (See image on the left). And if we are at it, any clue
how the epoxy leg was made on the right image?
Also cracked olive tree pieces filled with Epoxy. Herein, however, a checkerboard patterns ~10mm deep (or more) was made using the lathe (the round latitude rings - see left image) and on a table saw (the longitude lines along the glass). Then, the glass was sealed and filled with Epoxy (middle images), only to turn it to the final results on the right. See also Epoxy vessels
An epoxy based lamp. A mold from cheap wood (left) was turned
on a lathe, and two Olive tree branches were glued at 90
degrees, along the axis and orthogonal to it (second from the
left), only to pour the epoxy. The base of the epoxy lamp was
then wood-turned out of the mold... The two images on the
right show two results - the electric wires are hidden inside
holes made in the Olive branches.
An epoxy based lamp, like a waterfall. The vertical pillar was cracked first, epoxy was filled in it and it was turn. Then, the base was carved as can see in the left image, and epoxy was poured in. Olive tree.
Some trials in locked geometry inside a cube...
A challenge I was exposed to by Yaacov Strichman. The different steps are conveyed in the images left to right, top to bottom. First step (top left) shows the chuck that were used on the (almost) final result. In the bottom left, the simple gouge made and used to verify the sphericity is presented. Beech wood.
Some interesting turning challenge (a sphere partially out of a box).
The different steps of the process are shown left to right,
where the last shown step was sawing the leftovers on a table
saw. Beech wood.
Another interesting turning challenge (by Yaacov Strichman, that
required turning from three axis).
The different steps of the process are shown on the two left images,
whereas the right image shows the final result. Beech wood.
Some interesting geometry (a Pencil holder!?) I saw in a 2019
(I think) AAW magazine by Mark Jundanian, and had to try
it. Araucaria wood.